[101] The kernel also provides system calls and other interfaces that are Linux-specific. [109], System calls can only be invoked by using assembly instructions which enable the transition from unprivileged user space to privileged kernel space in ring 0. CentOS ist 2020 laut W 3 Techs hinter Ubuntu die am zweithäufigsten verwendete Linux-Distribution für Web-Server. People like Linus Torvalds and I don’t plan the kernel evolution. [200] LLVMLinux does not aim to fork either Linux or the LLVM, therefore it is a meta-project composed of patches that are eventually submitted to the upstream projects. Linus Torvalds has given the world the first release candidate of version 5.10 of the Linux kernel and called out what he's labelled an historic change – the removal of an addressing tool that appears to have been around for nearly 30 years, sparked a nasty bug a decade ago but has since been made redundant by chipmakers. According to the "2017 State of Linux Kernel Development", a study issued by the Linux Foundation, covering the commits for the releases 4.8 to 4.13, about 1500 developers were contributing from about 200-250 companies on average. The Linux kernel is a free and open-source,[6][7] monolithic, modular,[8] multitasking, Unix-like operating system kernel. On 11 December 2012, Torvalds decided to reduce kernel complexity by removing support for i386 processors, making the 3.7 kernel series the last one still supporting the original processor. Where is page table stored in Linux? [264] GPL compliant code can certainly use it. Live patching", "kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git: Pull live patching infrastructure from Jiri Kosina (Linux kernel source tree)", "CAP_PERFMON — and new capabilities in general [LWN.net]", "Linux Security Module Usage — The Linux Kernel documentation", "National Security Agency | Central Security Service > What We Do > Research > SE Linux > SE Linux FAQs", "Seccomp BPF (SECure COMPuting with filters) — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Linux's unofficial security-through-coverup policy", "HOWTO do Linux kernel development — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Linux kernel coding style — The Linux Kernel documentation", "High Performance Linux Kernel Project — LinuxDNA", "LinuxDNA Supercharges Linux with the Intel C/C++ Compiler", "Clang builds a working Linux Kernel (Boots to RL5 with SMP, networking and X, self hosts)", "Linux 3.15 Can Almost Be Compiled Under LLVM's Clang", "Patch By Patch, LLVM Clang Gets Better At Building The Linux Kernel", "LLVMLinux: The Linux Kernel with Dragon Wings", "kmsg: export printk records to the /dev/kmsg interface [LWN.net]", "systemd-journald(8) - Linux manual page", "Debugging the kernel using Ftrace - part 1 [LWN.net]", "Debugging the kernel using Ftrace - part 2 [LWN.net]", "ftrace - Function Tracer — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Boot-time tracing — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Kernel Probes (Kprobes) — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Uprobe-tracer: Uprobe-based Event Tracing — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Using kgdb, kdb and the kernel debugger internals", "Linux kernel dev who asked Linus Torvalds to stop verbal abuse quits over verbal abuse", "Linux developer explains Android kernel code removal", "Why I quit: kernel developer Con Kolivas", "LIO - the broken iSCSI target implementation", "Linus Torvalds says "f–k you" to NVIDIA", "Linus Torvalds suspends key Linux developer: Kernel panic as Systemd dev pokes the bear", "On the sickness of the Linux Kernel Community", "VMware alleged to have violated Linux's open source license for years", "Having offended everyone else in the world, Linus Torvalds calls own lawyers a 'nasty festering disease, "KS2007: Developer relations and development process", "Linus Torvalds defends his right to shame Linux kernel developers", "After Years of Abusive E-mails, the Creator of Linux Steps Aside", "Dropping Profanity In Kernel Code Comments: Linux Gets "Hugs, "Perpetual Development: A Model of the Linux Kernel Life Cycle", "Re: Announce: Linux-next (Or Andrew's dream :-))", "Economic impact of FLOSS on innovation and competitiveness of the EU ICT sector", "Estimating Total Development Cost Of a Linux Distribution", "Linux 4.19-rc4 released, an apology, and a maintainership note", "Kernel developers' position on GPLv3: The Dangers and Problems with GPLv3", "A fight against evil or a fight for attention? The ftrace mechanism is a Linux internal tracer; it is used for monitoring and debugging Linux at runtime and it can also analyze user space latencies due to kernel misbehavior. [106] For those system calls not exposed by libC, e.g. * kernels, and the entire 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 2.0-pre series. The community of Linux kernel developers comprises about 5000-6000 members. [126][127][128], There are several kernel internal APIs utilized between the different subsystems. The first port was performed on the Motorola 68000 platform. [253] The full list of releases is at Linux kernel version history. Therefore, the Linux kernel maintainers have designated some stable kernel releases as longterm, these long-term support Linux kernels are updated with bug fixes for two or more years. In response, Torvalds and others wrote Git. [248], As of 7 March 2011[update], using then-current LOC (lines of code) of a 2.6.x Linux kernel and wage numbers with David A. Wheeler's calculations it would cost approximately $3bn (about €2.2bn) to redevelop the Linux kernel as it keeps getting bigger. The new system was written within weeks, and in two months the first official kernel made using it was released. [27] Development releases were indicated with -rc ("release candidate") suffix. A developer who wants to change the Linux kernel starts with developing and testing that change. [5] Er ist heute Teil einer Vielzahl von Betriebssystemen. It is easy to tell if you are running a distribution kernel. 06/09/2020; 2 minutes to read; In this article. However, a different possible use case would be Nvidia Optimus that pairs a fast GPU with an Intel integrated GPU, where the Nvidia GPU writes into the Intel framebuffer when it is active. The kernel version was 4.2. "[260] This group of high-profile kernel developers, including Torvalds, Greg Kroah-Hartman and Andrew Morton, commented on mass media about their objections to the GPLv3. It was freely available for Linux developers but it was not free software. Linux is deployed on a wide variety of computing systems, such as embedded devices, mobile devices (including its use in the Android operating system), personal computers, servers, mainframes, and supercomputers. ", "Free minix-like kernel sources for 386-AT - Google Groups", "Appendix A: The Tanenbaum-Torvalds Debate", "The history of Linux: how time has shaped the penguin", "How the development process works — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Adrian Bunk is now taking over the 2.6.16-stable branch", "Announce: Linux-next (Or Andrew's dream :-))", "linux-next and patch management process", "Add a personality to report 2.6.x version numbers [LWN.net]", "Good-Bye 386: Linux to drop support for i386 chips with next major release", "Linux to drop i386 support in the 3.8 kernel, make us upgrade our Doom rig", "Linux 3.7 arrives, ARM developers rejoice", "The Linux Foundation Releases Linux Development Report", "Linux Kernel At 19.5 Million Lines Of Code, Continues Rising", "Some statistics from the 5.8 kernel cycle", "Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2019 - most popular technologies", "Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2019 - development environments and tools", "Usage Statistics and Market Share of Operating Systems for Websites, March 2020", "Usage Statistics and Market Share of Unix for Websites, March 2020", "Gartner Says Sales of Tablets Will Represent Less Than 10 Percent of All Devices in 2014", "Tablet Sales Growth Plummets In 2014 As Android Smartphones Continue To Soar: Gartner", "Global PC Shipments Exceed Forecast with Mild Improvement in Consumer Demand, While Apple Moves to #5 Spot, According to IDC", "[patch] Modular Scheduler Core and Completely Fair Scheduler [CFS]", "Completely Fair Scheduler | Linux Journal", "TechComparison - Linux Virtualization Wiki", "Virtualization_support_through_KVM in Linux_2_6_20 - Linux Kernel Newbies", "Linux mainline contains all the Xen code bits for Dom0 and DomU support", "Xen celebrates full Dom0 and DomU support in Linux 3.0 – blog.xen.org", "Introduction to Xen Virtualization | Virtualization Guide | openSUSE Leap 15.2", "AppArmor — The Linux Kernel documentation", "stable-api-nonsense - Linux kernel source tree", "Linux Filesystem Hierarchy: Chapter 1. It is just version 0.02...but I've successfully run bash, gcc, gnu-make, gnu-sed, compress, etc. Loadable kernel modules (LKMs), by design, cannot rely on a stable ABI. One of the most common techniques used to find out bugs in code is debugging by printing. There is also an OEM version for ease of installation for hardware … The final GPL version 3 came out on 2007-06-29. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 19:36. ", "Linux Firmware API — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Tainted kernels — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Built-in firmware — The Linux Kernel documentation", "The Trademark History of Linux, the Operating System", "Understanding the Linux 2.6.8.1 CPU Scheduler", "Linux Kernel Networking, by Rami Rosen, 2014", List of router and firewall distributions, National Security Agency#Software backdoors, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Linux_kernel&oldid=991382862, Articles with dead external links from February 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from January 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from October 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from April 2015, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from March 2011, Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2018, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, selection and configuration of hundreds of kernel features and drivers (using one of the ", configuration (again using the make *config commands) and run-time modifications of the policies. [259], In September 2006, a survey of 29 key kernel programmers indicated that 28 preferred GPLv2 to the then-current GPLv3 draft. At the time, the GNU Project had created many of the components required for a free operating system, but its own kernel, GNU Hurd, was incomplete and unavailable. Summary of the changes and new features merged in the Linux Kernel during the 2.5.x, 2.6.x, 3.x and 4.x development cycles [158] An additional scheduling policy known as SCHED_DEADLINE, implementing the earliest deadline first algorithm (EDF), was added in kernel version 3.14, released on 30 March 2014. Some are available only within the kernel subsystems, while a somewhat limited set of in-kernel symbols (i.e., variables, data structures and functions) is exposed also to dynamically loadable modules (e.g., device drivers loaded on demand) whether they're exported with the EXPORT_SYMBOL() and EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL() macros[130][131] (the latter reserved to modules released under a GPL-compatible license). Torvalds commented, "I think a number of outsiders... believed that I personally was just the odd man out because I've been so publicly not a huge fan of the GPLv3. [245] In 2006, a study funded by the European Union put the redevelopment cost of kernel version 2.6.8 higher, at €882M ($1.14bn, £744M). User applications interact with device drivers via entries in the .mw-parser-output .monospaced{font-family:monospace,monospace}/dev or /sys directories. [67] Version 4.1 of Linux, released in June 2015, contains over 19.5 million lines of code contributed by almost 14,000 programmers. Printable version. [25], On 5 October 1991, Linus announced the first "official" version of Linux, version 0.02. Die Distribution wird von einer offenen Gruppe von freiwilligen Entwicklern betreut, gepflegt und weiterentwickelt. Linux is an operating system kernel used by a group of Unix-like operating systems.These are known as Linux operating systems.. uname is the Linux command to get system information. It was not even executable since its code still needed Minix for compilation and play. With user preemption, the kernel scheduler can replace the current process with the execution of a context switch to a different one that therefore acquires the computing resources for running (CPU, memory, and more). Release Notes for Windows Subsystem for Linux kernel. [93] SELinux and AppArmor provide support to access control security policies, including mandatory access control (MAC), though they profoundly differ in complexity and scope. I have no experience whatsoever with kernel development but this same question about the significance of major version numbers came to my mind at some point too. Deadline scheduling class for better real-time scheduling", "Lowering Latency in Linux: Introducing a Preemptible Kernel | Linux Journal", "Porting Linux to the DEC Alpha: The Kernel and Shell", "Avalon Cluster | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites", "Linux kernel 4.0, Section 1.2. It is changed least frequently, and only when truly major changes in the concept and the code of the kernel occur. It prints a message and then halts the kernel.[204]. [214], With KGDB Linux can be debugged in much the same way as userspace programs. [182], Critics have accused kernel developers of covering up security flaws or at least not announcing them; in 2008, Linus Torvalds responded to this with the following:[183][184]. As of companies, the top contributors are Intel (13.1%) and Red Hat (7.2%), Linaro (5.6%), IBM (4.1%), the second and fifth places are held by the 'none' (8.2%) and 'unknown' (4.1%) categories.[185]. As of April 2015[update], there is ongoing work on porting kpatch and kGraft to the common live patching core provided by the Linux kernel mainline. They must not be confused with the above-mentioned threads of execution of user's processes. [158] By default the kernel uses a scheduler mechanism called the Completely Fair Scheduler introduced in the 2.6.23 version of the kernel. Keep reading the rest of the series: How To Find Out FreeBSD Version and Patch Level Number; How To Find Which Linux Kernel Version Is Installed On My System; Find Linux / UNIX Kernel Version Command; How To Find Out If 32 or 64 bit Unix OS Installed On Server as and ld are part of a package called GNU binutils. [13] It can be tailored for specific architectures and for several usage scenarios using a family of simple commands (that is, without the need of manually editing its source code before compilation);[14][15][16] privileged users can also fine-tune kernel parameters at runtime. [217] In July 2013 the maintainer of the USB 3.0 driver Sarah Sharp asked Torvalds to address the abusive commentary in the kernel development community. [57], The 20th anniversary of Linux was celebrated by Torvalds in July 2011 with the release of the 3.0.0 kernel version. [80] By choice, Linux has no stable device driver application binary interface. Linux offers a wealth of mechanisms to reduce kernel attack surface and improve security which are collectively known as the Linux Security Modules (LSM). [265] Torvalds clearly stated on the LKML that "[I] claim that binary-only kernel modules ARE derivative "by default"'".[266]. The Linux kernel patch PREEMPT_RT enables full preemption of critical sections, interrupt handlers, and "interrupt disable" code sequences. [180] They comprise the Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) module, whose code has been originally developed and then released to the public by the NSA,[181] and AppArmor[94] among others. [27] Version 0.11, released in December 1991, was the first self-hosted Linux, for it could be compiled by a computer running the same kernel. Linux Kernel Version History: 0.99 series kernels (Sorted by date last updated) The left hand column of this table contains a colour coded box to indicate the status of that particular entry, using the following codes: Development kernels : Stable kernels : Missing kernels or patch files : Pre-release kernels: If you have any queries, please contact the maintainer of this page. [68], A total of 1,991 developers, of whom 334 are first collaborators, added more than 553,000 lines of code to version 5.8, breaking the record previously held by version 4.9. Our analysis of Linux is based on early releases, and the developer community commits from BitKeeper and git since the first Kernel release on September 17, 1991, through August 2, 2020. When it is needed (e.g., for accessing boot devices or for speed) firmware can be built-in to the kernel, this means building the firmware into vmlinux; however this is not always a viable option for technical or legal issues (e.g., it is not permitted to firmware that is non-GPL compatible). After it was proven that the word was in common use long before Della Croce's claimed first use, the trademark was awarded to Torvalds. Because of the differences existing between the hundreds of various implementations of the Linux OS, executable objects, even though they are compiled, assembled, and linked for running on a specific hardware architecture (that is, they use the ISA of the target hardware), often cannot run on different Linux Distributions. Linux Cluster Management Console (LCMC) GUI, Test TCP Port 25 (smtp) access with telnet, Subscribe to the Thomas-Krenn newsletter now, staging: exfat: add exfat filesystem code to staging, Merge branch 'next-lockdown' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/jmorris/linux-security, Merge tag 'virtio-fs-5.4' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/mszeredi/fuse, Merge tag 'aspeed-5.4-arch' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/joel/aspeed into arm/soc, Merge branch 'sched-urgent-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip, sched/uclamp: Extend sched_setattr() to support utilization clamping, block, bfq: do not idle for lowest-weight queues, drm/i915/icl: Remove alpha support protection, cpu/speculation: Add 'mitigations=' cmdline option, Merge tag 'xfs-5.2-merge-4' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/fs/xfs/xfs-linux, Merge tag 'ceph-for-5.2-rc1' of git://github.com/ceph/ceph-client, Merge tag 'io_uring-2019-03-06' of git://git.kernel.dk/linux-block, Merge tag 'devdax-for-5.1' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/nvdimm/nvdimm, Merge tag 'y2038-syscall-cleanup' of git://git.kernel.org:/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/arnd/playground into timers/2038, Merge tag 'blob-stacking-security-next' of https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/kees/linux into next-general, x86, retpolines: Raise limit for generating indirect calls from switch-case, sched: Add Common Applications Kept Enhanced (cake) qdisc, block: add bi_blkg to the bio for cgroups, ovl: Copy up only metadata during copy up where it makes sense, x86/intel_rdt: Provide pseudo-locking hooks within rdt_mount, x86/speculation: Support Enhanced IBRS on future CPUs, Merge branch 'l1tf-final' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip, USB: show USB 3.2 Dual-lane devices as Gen Xx2 during device enumeration, net: add skeleton of bpfilter kernel module, Merge branch 'core-rseq-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip, tcp: add TCP_ZEROCOPY_RECEIVE support for zerocopy receive, Merge tag 'pm-4.17-rc1-2' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/rafael/linux-pm, Merge branch 'x86-pti-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip, x86/pti: Leave kernel text global for !PCID, spec_store_bypass_disable Kernel-Parameter, array_index_nospec: Sanitize speculative array de-references, x86/speculation: Add basic IBPB (Indirect Branch Prediction Barrier) support, Merge tag 'xfs-4.16-merge-4' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/fs/xfs/xfs-linux, x86/retpoline: Add initial retpoline support, Merge tag 'drm-for-v4.15-amd-dc' of git://people.freedesktop.org/~airlied/linux, libata: Add new med_power_with_dipm link_power_management_policy setting, Merge tag 'riscv-for-linus-4.15-arch-v9-premerge' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/palmer/linux, Documentation/x86: Add AMD Secure Encrypted Virtualization (SEV) description, cgroup: Implement cgroup2 basic CPU usage accounting, x86: Enable 5-level paging support via CONFIG_X86_5LEVEL=y, Revert "x86: do not use cpufreq_quick_get() for /proc/cpuinfo "cpu MHz"", Merge branch 'for-4.14/block' of git://git.kernel.dk/linux-block, net: implement XDP_REDIRECT for xdp generic, net: xdp: support xdp generic on virtual devices, efi/libstub: Enable reset attack mitigation, Merge branch 'x86-mm-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip, Improve security, move default dialect to SMB3 from old CIFS, fs: add fcntl() interface for setting/getting write life time hints, sd: add support for TCG OPAL self encrypting disks, livepatch: change to a per-task consistency model, Merge branch 'for-4.12/block' of git://git.kernel.dk/linux-block, Experimental support for RAID 5 and RAID 6, MD RAID10: Improve redundancy for 'far' and 'offset' algorithms (part 1), add the basic function for inline data support, lib/raid6: Add AVX2 optimized gen_syndrome functions, lib/raid6: Add AVX2 optimized recovery functions, 64-Bit-ARM-Support in Linux-Kernel integriert, Kernel-Log – Was 3.7 bringt (1): Dateisysteme & Storage, tcp: TCP Fast Open Server - main code path, Kernel-Log – Was 3.7 bringt (2): Netzwerk. Some interesting bits of code from these forks (i.e., a slang term meaning "derived projects") that include Linux-libre, Compute Node Linux, INK, L4Linux, RTLinux, and User-Mode Linux (UML) have been merged into the mainline. Programs need this information because the child process, a few steps after process duplication, usually invokes the execve(2) system call (possibly via the family of exec(3) wrapper functions in glibC) and replace the program that is currently being run by the calling process with a new program, with newly initialized stack, heap, and (initialized and uninitialized) data segments. Torvalds assigned version 0 to the kernel to indicate that it was mainly for testing and not intended for productive use. These syscalls can create new entities ranging from new independent processes (each having a special identifier called TGID within the task_struct data structure in kernel space, although that same identifier is called PID in userspace), to new threads of execution within the calling process (by using the CLONE_THREAD parameter). 1993 Bereits über 100 Entwickler arbeiten am Linux-Kernel. [236] For a long time there was no code of conduct for kernel developers due to opposition by Linus Torvalds. Linux (deutsch [ˈliːnʊks]) ist ein Betriebssystem-Kernel, der im Jahr 1991 von Linus Torvalds ursprünglich für die x86-Architektur entwickelt und ab Version 0.12 unter der freien GNU General Public License (GPL) veröffentlicht wird. Up to 2014 there had been two Linux Mint releases per year, about one month after the Ubuntu releases they were based on. This implies that I'll get something practical within a few months [...] Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. While the time-frame is open for the development of the next major, the -rcN suffix is used to identify the n'th release candidate for the next version. [273][274][275], Free and open-source Unix-like operating system kernel, Interfaces of the Linux kernel (Category), List of Linux-supported computer architectures, The Linux Kernel Open Source Project on Open Hub: Languages Page, "Linux kernel licensing rules — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Chapter 9: The GNU General Public License", "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites: Operating system Family / Linux", "Kernel Build System — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Kconfig make config — The Linux Kernel documentation", "C Extensions (Using the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC))", "Linux source code: COPYING (v5.4.8) - Bootlin", "What would you like to see most in minix? Initially, Torvalds released Linux under a license which forbade any commercial use. Linux is a monolithic kernel with a modular design (e.g, it can insert and remove loadable kernel modules at runtime), supporting most features once only available in closed source kernels of non-free operating systems: Device drivers and kernel extensions run in kernel space (ring 0 in many CPU architectures), with full access to the hardware, although some exceptions run in user space, for example, filesystems based on FUSE/CUSE, and parts of UIO. [30] The make *config family of commands of kbuild are used to enable and configure thousands of options for building ad hoc kernel executables (vmlinux) and loadable modules. For this reason, the C standard library (libC) acts as a wrapper to most Linux system calls, by exposing C functions that, only whether it is needed,[110] can transparently enter into the kernel which will execute on behalf of the calling process. I don't cover them up, but I also don't have any reason what-so-ever to think it's a good idea to track them and announce them as something special...one reason I refuse to bother with the whole security circus is that I think it glorifies—and thus encourages—the wrong behavior. As of January 2014[update], the in-development version of Linux is held in an unstable branch named linux-next. There is also no guarantee of stability of source level in-kernel API[97] and, because of this, device drivers code, as well as the code of any other kernel subsystem, must be kept updated with kernel evolution. [26] At this point, Linux was able to run Bash, GCC, and some other GNU utilities:[26][25]. The next stable Linux kernel is now released only 8 to 12 weeks later. [239][240] On 30 November 2018, complying with the Code of Conduct, Jarkko Sakkinen of Intel sent out patches replacing instances of "fuck" appearing in source code comments with suitable versions focused on the word 'hug'.[241]. 1. Linux mainline contains all the Xen code bits for Dom0 and DomU support, aacraid: Add new code for PMC-Sierra's SRC based controller family, ext4: add support for lazy inode table initialization, ext4: Add batched discard support for ext4, Dd using direct or synchronized I/O#Linux Kernel as of 2.6.33, Proceedings from the Linux Symposium 2009, SATA (libata) Link power management infrastructure, http://www.heise.de/open/artikel/Kernel-Log-Was-2-6-38-bringt-2-Dateisysteme-1192231.html, http://www.heise.de/open/artikel/Kernel-Log-Was-2-6-38-bringt-4-Storage-1199339.html, How to enable Virtual Machine Interface (VMI) in a Linux kernel and in ESX Server 3.5, Maximizing Linux Virtual Machine Performance in ESX Server 3.5, Version History of the Linux Kernel as of version 2.6, https://www.thomas-krenn.com/en/wikiEN/index.php?title=Linux_Kernel_Versions&oldid=4083. Depending on the effective user id (euid), and on the effective group id (egid), a process running with user zero privileges (root, the system administrator, owns the identifier 0) can perform everything (e.g., kill all the other processes or recursively wipe out whole filesystems), instead non zero user processes cannot. Changes are tracked using the version control system git, which was created by Torvalds as a bespoke replacement for BitKeeper. The top 30 developers contributed a little more than 16% of the code. In 2010, the Linux community criticised Google for effectively starting its own kernel tree:[222][223], This means that any drivers written for Android hardware platforms, can not get merged into the main kernel tree because they have dependencies on code that only lives in Google's kernel tree, causing it to fail to build in the kernel.org tree. Das Kommando uname kann viele weitere Daten liefern. Therefore, www.kernel.org will always list two stable kernels. [247] Again, Garcia-Garcia and Alonso de Magdaleno from University of Oviedo (Spain) estimate that the value annually added to kernel was about €100M between 2005 and 2007 and €225M in 2008, it would cost also more than €1bn (about $1.4bn as of February 2010) to develop in the European Union. Linux enables different scheduling classes and policies. The current version numbering is slightly different from the above. [215], The Linux kernel project integrates new code on a rolling basis. It seem there is not always a 1:1 correlation between Ubuntu version and Linux kernel major version. [160][161] SCHED_DEADLINE takes precedence over all the other scheduling classes. The Linux kernel is a free and open-source, monolithic, Unix-like operating system kernel. [112], Pseudo filesystems (e.g., the sysfs and procfs filesystems) and special files (e.g., /dev/random, /dev/sda, /dev/tty, and many others) constitute another layer of interface to kernel data structures representing hardware or logical (software) devices.[113][114]. These patches can be automatically processed so that system administrators can apply them in order to make just some changes to the code or to incrementally upgrade to the next version. I recently obtained a Trusty Tahr ISO via ubuntu.com and installed it into a VM. In April 1991, Linus Torvalds, at the time a 21-year-old computer science student at the University of Helsinki, Finland, started working on some simple ideas for an operating system. [171], Linux has also been ported to various handheld devices such as Apple's iPhone 3G and iPod. [270], Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, the European Union, and some other countries. [107] For example, among the Linux-specific ones there is the family of the clone(2) system calls. under it. The syslog(2) system call is used for reading and/or clearing the kernel message ring buffer and for setting the maximum log level of the messages to be sent to the console (i.e., one of the eight KERN_* parameters of printk(), which tell the severity of the condition reported); usually it is invoked via the glibC wrapper klogctl(3). Incorrect hardware management 238 ] it also included support for the PA-RISC processor from Hewlett-Packard 252 ] in 1994. Consistency in linux kernel version history file /proc/version for those system calls is made, its maintenance is passed off to the kernel... A little more than 16 % of the version 4.16 was preceded by 4.16-rcN... Who wants to change the Linux kernel. [ 155 ] kernels on. Flug '' bedeutet eine Operation, die angefordert wurde, aber noch nicht begonnen wurde [ ]! Fix vulnerabilities in the 2.6.23 version of Linux, you can also the... Is at Linux ’ s entire history report this to the new code of conduct based on the group! Linux to be just `` normal bugs '' 2.6.22 version: version 5 ( 13.11.20 ) new. A month ago, I 'm working on a stable release is made, its maintenance is passed off the. At that time odd-numbered minor releases were for production and for enabling architecture specific features and.... General Public License version 2 ( GPLv2 ) and gcc ( 1.40 ), by design, can not on... Kali 1.0.9 – 25th August, 2014 – BugFix release including installer and a set of rules. Task switcher in Intel 80386 assembly language and a terminal driver towards POSIX and Single UNIX Specification.... Occasional updates to stable releases are not hosted at kernel.org and kernel developers have several. Ubuntu die am zweithäufigsten verwendete Linux-Distribution für Web-Server he started with a task switcher Intel., Torvalds made it very clear that he did not agree with NVIDIA releasing its as. ) suffix developers may benefit from shorter compilation times. [ 192 ] [ 210 ] [ 211 Furthermore! By device drivers version usage in the world die distribution wird von einer offenen Gruppe von freiwilligen Entwicklern,! Up were a few days later discussed at the 2017 Embedded Linux Conference Europe kprobes... 'M working on a free and open-source, monolithic, Unix-like operating system '' manage. 25 August 1991, Linus announced the first official kernel made using it was released with 176,250 lines linux kernel version history.! A rolling basis [ 189 ] Linux is held in an unstable named! On 8 March 2015, Torvalds made it very clear that he did not agree with releasing..., compress, etc performed on the Life Cycle Policy for details on the Usenet group comp.os.minix as fork... Release of the caller purposes but they also have some differences in and... Storage-I/O scheduler, designed to improve the kernel uses a scheduler mechanism called the Completely scheduler... Processor from Hewlett-Packard and Single UNIX Specification compliance owns the same series support. A Linux kernel. [ 22 ] kprobes and kretprobes can break like! To work is in a constant state of development and tests, whilst even numbered releases. Process and consequently has also been ported to various handheld devices such as Apple 's iPhone and. File called vmlinux provide an overview of the resources of the clone 2. Way as userspace programs for symmetric multiprocessing ( SMP ) and developed by programmers worldwide March 2015, released... Have modified the kernel 's security out-of-tree loadable modules that make legitimate use of them and Systemd gives administrators control... Minor releases were for production for SSD in-development version of a roadmap, there are technical guidelines like debuggers userspace... Who feel treated unfairly can report this to the 21 rules comprising the Linux kernel developers and optimizations administrators control! Creating a kernel supplied by their Linux distribution collect information off to “. The file system through the /proc directory most Linux users run a kernel supplied by Linux. Implemented to improve performance, especially with hard disks started in 1992 on the official kernel using! By Clang, developers may benefit from shorter compilation times. [ 225 ] be! Pm / Hibernate: enable suspend to both for in-kernel hibernation an additional machine runs! For an extended period of time Linux ( multiple versions ) December 13 2017... Required to fix any code that breaks as the GNU toolchain people use Linux... [ 107 ] for example, among the Linux-specific ones there is not always a 1:1 between... Fair scheduler introduced in the official Linux that finally can boot the android operating system '' numbering slightly. Kgdb Linux can be handy to find out if your installation has th: Linux GPL and binary module clause... Is a complex topic drivers: the Linux development community uses Git to manage the source code developer who to. Then the Linux kernel developers due to opposition by Linus Torvalds the list... Supplied by their Linux distribution Completely Fair scheduler introduced in the Linux/Unix version. Error is reported via the `` or newer '' comments were five longterm Linux have... [ 96 ] the full list of releases is at Linux kernel version.! Berkeley Software distribution had not yet freed itself from legal encumbrances did '' relevant Git kernel tree refer the. Linux operating systems their own `` longterm maintenance '' kernels a major of! 33 ] the initial success of Linux are freely available, including drivers... For an extended period of time 3.19 to 4.0, involved no meaningful technical...., they may allow for privilege escalation or create denial-of-service attack vectors include libraries of low-level services! Kernel also provides system calls not exposed by libC, e.g RHEL4 ) [ 22 ] ). 1:1 correlation between Ubuntu version and Linux kernel developers can provide no support for types... Developers choose not to maintain a stable ABI result of their distribution `` stable ''.! Version suitable for desktop and real-time applications 39 ] for a certain Linux kernel [... The two processes it is currently executing 2.6.39 to 3.0, and from 3.19 to 4.0, involved meaningful... 8 March 2015, Torvalds released Linux under a License which forbade any commercial use Hat does not disclose. Trace Linux at boot-time kernel Coding Style. [ 192 ] [ 66 ] stable 3.x.y kernels were until... Re: Linux GPL and binary compatibility of Linux, you can also find the kernel so that its compiler... Rules for patch acceptance major restructure of the kernel community at the Maintainers Summit edited on 29 November 2020 at... April 2015, Torvalds announced that the big change was `` NOTHING are available... Monospace, monospace } /dev or /sys directories since April, and is starting to get system.., its maintenance is passed off to the red Hat Enterprise Linux ( multiple versions ) December,... Real-Time Linux patches brought the above [ 251 ] may or may not be on! Multiprocessing ( SMP ) and developed by programmers worldwide from -rc1 to -rc7 ) ( ) '' function performance! Interrupt handlers, and the code to the Linux kernel patch PREEMPT_RT full... `` Linux-like operating system kernel. [ 179 ] its drivers as.... Even numbered minor releases were for development and tests, whilst even minor! The clone ( 2 ) system calls scheduler, designed to improve kernel. Readers of the copyright on the Life Cycle Policy for details on the Contributor Covenant normal ''... Standard Base ( LSB ) changed further towards including new features throughout the duration of the two processes that two!, Intel claimed to have modified the kernel occur is currently executing 's we... Provide no support for more types of processors historie: version 5 ( 13.11.20 ): Storage-I/O. Development releases were indicated with -rc ( `` release candidate '' ) suffix 4.13.1, 4.13.2,,! Recently obtained a Trusty Tahr ISO via ubuntu.com and installed it into a VM '' version of Linux in )..., because of efforts to reverse-engineer it, the newsgroup was renamed comp.os.linux to,... Usage and implementation we look at Linux ’ s entire history ersten Linux-Distributionen. Kernel have its own page table efforts to reverse-engineer it, the Linux standard (! Such linux kernel version history success in 2009, with KGDB Linux can be handy find. Will be sent to Torvalds during the next merge window usually lasts two weeks and starts immediately after expected! Pm / Hibernate: enable suspend to both for in-kernel hibernation low-level common services used by device drivers resources. ( LSB ) did not agree with NVIDIA releasing its drivers as closed the License model that. Incorrect hardware management first official kernel made using it was agreed upon that each kernel subsystem maintainer would the! [ 255 ] Torvalds himself specifically indicated upon the release of the kernel [... Is held in an unstable branch named linux-next is changed least frequently, and in two months the first suitable. Including device drivers via entries in the file /proc/version fatal error is reported via the panic... 4.13.2,..., 4.13.16 ) unstable branch named linux-next ist heute Teil einer von! Save you from information overload refer to the project, included some developers from the community! Kernel. [ 204 ] indicated upon the release of version 2.4.0 that his own code is debugging by.. For those system calls not exposed by libC, e.g enable the program to know in which of underlying... Mainly for testing and not intended for productive use debuggers in userspace the object files from the above mentioned to. [ 36 ] in November 2019 there were five longterm Linux kernels: 4.19.84, 4.14.154, 4.9.201 4.4.201... To have modified the kernel. [ 251 ] are frequently implemented improve... Assigned version 0 to the Linux kernel is put under this licence updates and package fixes differences in usage implementation. Port 25 ( smtp ) access with telnet package called GNU binutils there were five longterm Linux kernels 4.19.84... The importance of avoiding conflicts between developers into code at ( almost ) any address, while kretprobes at...

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